Chemical Analysis

Using Oxford instruments – PMI Master Pro – optical omission spectrometer (OES), for analysis of;

  • Carbon and low alloy steels
  • Stainless steels/ “L” grade distinction capable
  • Aluminium and aluminium alloys
  • Coppers and copper alloys
  • Nickel and nickel alloys

The PMI Master Pro is a portable testing unit and we offer onsite testing.

PMI-MASTER PRO for OES analysis of metals PMI-Master-Pro-Spectrometer
PMI-Master-Pro-scanning

 

Example of printout of Chemical results from the Oxford Instruments PMI Master Pro.

(carbon steel)

  metallurgy-report

 Material Identification, Selection and Recommendation

This includes;

  • Heat treatment condition
  • Surface coatings
  • Selective hardened surface layers
  • Chemistry (XRF/optical)
  • Hardness (EQUITIP/MIC10)
martinsitic-microstructure
Quench and tempered martensitic microstructure

Ferrite and pearlite microstructure
Induction-hardened-case-surface-layer
Induction hardened case surface layer
Case-carburised-surface-layer
Case carburised surface layer
nitrocarburised-surface-treatment
White layer of nitrocarburised surface treatment

Zinc coating on bolt thread flank and root.

Failure Analysis

Characterise and categorise the nature and probable causes of material and component failure.

  • Failure mode identification (Fracture, Cracking, Distortion, Corrosion, Wear)
  • Contributing factors
  • Identification of failure mechanism

(Fatigue, Overload, Stress corrosion cracking, embrittlement, ductile or brittle fracture).

Ball-Bearing-Failure
Ball Bearing Failure
Spring-Fracture
Spring Fracture
Torsion-Fatigue-of-Splines
Torsion Fatigue of Splines
Bearing-Water-Damage
Bearing Water Damage
Bolt-Tensile-Overload
Bolt Tensile Overload
Shaft-Keyway-Fatigue
Shaft Keyway Fatigue

Metallography and Microstructure Characteristics

Evaluation of a materials microstructure using the aid of a high powered stereo microscope.

  • Identification and measurement of phases
  • Grain structure shape and size
  • Phase distribution
  • Microstructure deformation
  • Fracture and crack nature. ie – intergranular/transgranular.
Grain-deformation-of-microstructure
Grain deformation of microstructure
heat-affected-zone-and-weld-metal
Parent metal, heat affected zone and weld metal.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Stress corrosion cracking in grade 304 stainless steel
Intergranular-cracking
Intergranular cracking.

Spheroidal graphite cast iron (ductile nodular iron)
Flake-graphite-cast-iron
Flake graphite cast iron (grey iron)

Hardness Testing

Metlabs has both laboratory based and portable testing equipment.

Testing can be conducted using the following methods:

  • Vickers hardness (HV)
  • Brinell hardness (HB)
  • Rockwell C (HRC)

Our Equotip and Hardtip instruments are portable and we offer onsite testing.

Portable-Equotip-and-Hardtip-hardness-testers
Portable Equotip and Hardtip hardness testers
Laboratory-based-Vickers-hardness-tester
Laboratory based Vickers hardness tester

Surface Replication

A method used to obtain a surface representation of the materials microstructure, which may contain cracking, defects or flaws. This method is mostly used in the field and when it is not possible to section the component (mostly non-destructive).

  • Steels, stainless steels, cast irons
Cellulose-acetate-film-laid-over-a-butt-welded-pipe-joint
Cellulose acetate film laid over a butt welded pipe joint
Replica-of-cast-low-alloy-steel
Replica of cast low alloy steel
Replica-of-rolled-plate-material
Replica of rolled plate material containing a longitudinally banded microstructure of ferrite and pearlite.

Weld Procedures

  • Review existing procedures
  • Develop new procedures
  • Recommend repair procedures

Welding and Weld Defect Analysis

Examination of weld and welded joints.

  • Weld macrostructure
  • Weld microstructure
  • Weld metal composition
Lack-of-fusion-of-root-run
Lack of fusion of root run
Severe-undercutting-of-parent-metal
Severe undercutting of parent metal
Fillet-weld
Fillet weld (duplex stainless steel)
Multiple-run-butt-welded-joint
Multiple run butt welded joint (carbon steel)
Micrograph-of-lack-of-fusion
Micrograph of lack of fusion between weld and parent metal
Rail-aluminothermic-weld-metal
Rail aluminothermic weld metal